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Demographic Component, Process, and Measure

Demographic Component, Process, and Measure

Demography is understood as the quantitive study of the size and structure of the population, the components of population change, and the factors that influenced them. It studies in detail fertility, mortality, and migration in scientific ways.

For the demographic study, proper planning and strong supervision, and regular monitoring are needed because everything depends on the data that is derived from the survey and their analysis process. The demographic study is possible with the only demographic component, process, and measures.

Demographic Component, Process, and Measure

Demographic Component

Demographic components are factors that bring change in the population, such as birth death, and migration. The other components that can also cause a population change are marriage and divorce. In developing countries, marriage and divorce are very rare compared to developed countries. Therefore, these two factors are not taken as dominating factors. Birth brings a change in population by increasing or decreasing the population.

Demographic Process

The demographic process is the method of the way the population is changed. the methods through which populations are changed are fertility, mortality, and movement or migration. Birth occurs because of fertility, death occurs due to mortality and migration is a demographic process through which change is brought in population. Fertility and mortality are natural processes, which occur naturally. There is no human control over birth and death but migration can be done at one's will. Although migration can be forced or desired humans can control it. That is why migration is called an artificial demographic component as well as the process.

Demographic Measure

The demographic measure means measuring fertility, mortality, and migration by using some formulas so that fertility, mortality, and migration rates can be estimated. It is very important to find out the population situation, size, distribution, composition, etc, or a certain area at given times. Demographic measures are important to have an idea about the status of birth, death, and migration in certain places. These measures help us to plan better for people, places, and nations at a given time.

Types of Demographic measures

  • Fertility measures
  • Mortality Measures
  • Migration Measures
There are several types of demographic measures, including:

Fertility measures

These measures are used to understand and quantify the reproductive behavior of a population. Examples include the crude birth rate, the general fertility rate, and the total fertility rate.

Mortality measures

These measures are used to understand and quantify the death rates of a population. Examples include the crude death rate, the infant mortality rate, and the life expectancy at birth.

Migration measures

These measures are used to understand and quantify the movement of people in and out of a population. Examples include the net migration rate, the in-migration rate, and the out-migration rate.

Other types of demographic measures include age-specific rates, such as the age-specific fertility rate and the age-specific mortality rate, as well as measures of population structure, such as the dependency ratio and the sex ratio.


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